Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) turf are characterized electrically and mechanically for prospective on-chip applications. The CNFs turf of 10 micrometer diameter and 20 micrometer pitch are fabricated at high temperature (550 °C) and CMOS compatible temperatures (390 °C) directly on silicon substrates where the number of CNFs per μm2 area are 13 and 38 for the respective growth temperature. The electrical characterization are accomplished by using kelvin test structures, and a polyethylene nephthalate based transparent probe card containing Titanium and Gold based probe bumps of size 10 micrometer in diameter and 20 micrometer pitch. The entire probing system not only have measurement precision but also minimizes the risks of damage to turf. The transmission line measurements (TLM)-based model approach is used for the electrical characterization to de-embed the contact resistance contribution and extract the intrinsic properties of a single CNF. Applying the model to the TLM measurements yields a conductivity of 6530 S/m and 67000 S/m for a single CNF grown at 390 °C and 550 °C, respectively. The hardness and reduced modulus of fine pitch turf are measured by using nanoindentation technique. The CNFs grown at 390 °C have higher elastic modulus (0.84–1 MPa) than 550 °C grown CNFs (0.26–0.84 MPa) due to dense growth.
Smoltek holds unique world patents for technologies that make material engineering on an atomic level possible. Smoltek has solutions that allow continued miniaturization and increased performance of semiconductors, contribute to carbon-free steel production and renewable energy storage, and enable mind control of robotic prostheses. This is a story of how Smoltek came to be.
This is the third and last article in a series of three in which Smoltek founder and strategic advisor Shafiq Kabir share his personal thoughts on nanotechnology opportunities. In the previous two articles, he has addressed both the hype and the reality of carbon nanotechnology. In this last article, he looks into the future. He discusses how carbon nanotechnology will unleash the power of the internet of everything.